You cannot escape [64] In early March, Gaddafi's forces rallied, pushed eastwards and re-took several coastal cities before reaching Benghazi. The effort was initially largely led by the United States. [68], In August, rebel forces launched an offensive on the government-held coast of Libya, backed by a wide-reaching NATO bombing campaign, taking back territory lost months before and ultimately capturing the capital city of Tripoli,[69] while Gaddafi evaded capture and loyalists engaged in a rearguard campaign. "[106] Gaddafi urged a sweeping reform of the government bureaucracy, suggesting that most of the cabinet system should be dismantled to "free Libyans from red tape" and "protect the state's budget from corruption". [286][383] The Zuwayya tribe, based in eastern Libya, threatened to cut off oil exports from fields in its part of Libya if Libyan security forces continued attacking demonstrators. Despite this, Libya's Human Development Index in 2010 was the highest in Africa and greater than that of Saudi Arabia. [118], Dissent was illegal under Law 75 of 1973, and in 1974, Gaddafi asserted that anyone guilty of founding a political party would be executed. A New York Times online article also comments that "it seems that plenty of the black Africans captured as mercenaries were never actually involved in the fight". [215] Dagher, Levinson, and Coker also wrote that some government officials in Tripoli claimed that Ghaddafi's fall did not cause those shipments to be suspended. Many Libyans were inspired by the uprisings in neighbouring countries, such as Tunisia and Egypt. On 21 February, the Libyan Air Force aircraft attacked civilian protesters in Tripoli which caused international condemnation. actors involved, casualties, date, location, etc. [290], It is generally accepted that the military intervention by a multi-state coalition acting under the Security Council mandate since 19 March 2011 occasioned an international armed conflict between Libya and the intervening states. Estimates have been widely varied. [127][128], In late January, Jamal al-Hajji, a writer, political commentator and accountant, "call[ed] on the Internet for demonstrations to be held in support of greater freedoms in Libya" inspired by the Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions. [93], An estimated 13% of Libyan citizens were unemployed. In 2006, an initiative was adopted for providing people with low incomes investment portfolios amounting to $30,000 to be deposited with banks and companies. The United Nations Security Council passed an initial resolution on 26 February, freezing the assets of Gaddafi and his inner circle and restricting their travel, and referred the matter to the International Criminal Court for investigation. [366] Other news sources including The Independent and CNN have reported on the targeting[clarification needed] of black people in rebel held areas. The staff of a number of diplomatic missions of Libya have either resigned or condemned the actions of the Gaddafi government. [223] A recruitment center for Malian soldiers leaving to Libya was found in a Bamako hotel. [220] Chadian sources repudiated allegations that mercenaries from Chad were involved in the fighting in Libya. He also said that he had been receiving "thousands" of phone calls from Benghazi, from residents who were being held hostage and who wanted to be rescued. By 22 August, rebel fighters had gained entrance into Tripoli and occupied Green Square, which was promptly renamed Martyrs' Square in memory of those who had died fighting in the civil war. Authorizes Member States that have notified the Secretary-General, acting nationally or through regional organizations or arrangements, and acting in cooperation with the Secretary-General, to take all necessary measures, notwithstanding paragraph 9 of resolution 1970 (2011), to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, including Benghazi, while excluding a foreign occ… [341], The Uppsala Conflict Data Program, a public data resource that includes information on different types of organized violence (e.g. NATO/Libya : Allies Stress Their Unity of Objective, but Fail to Resolve all Their Differences In: EUROPE DIPLOMACY & DEFENCE, no. [88] Homelessness was insignificant, with literacy rates estimated at 88%, and average life expectancy rose from 51/54 in 1969 to 74/77. Protesters also clashed with police in Bayda and attacked government offices. [268][269] Colonel Nuretin Hurala, the commander of the Benghazi Naval Base also defected along with senior naval officials. The International Crisis Group believes this to have been a political manoeuvre to divert attention away from himself and the Jamahiriya political system towards government officials currently in power. "[200] Gaddafi's military commanders also reportedly executed soldiers who refused to fire on protesters. They're killing people in cold blood". Despite previous reports suggesting that Muammar Gaddafi may be inside, no members of the Gaddafi family were found. Al-Saadi Gaddafi (POW) [66][67] Throughout the conflict, rebels rejected government offers of a ceasefire and efforts by the African Union to end the fighting because the plans set forth did not include the removal of Gaddafi. He stated, "You know, the armoured militia yesterday, they killed four young boys in Benghazi. [58][59] It erupted with the Libyan Revolution,[60] also known as the 17 February Revolution. "[216], Over ten ammunition shipments sponsored by Qatar were allegedly delivered to anti-Gaddhafi forces via Sudan. CONFIRMÉ: des missiles Anti-Air et sol-sol son tiré de Bab Al3azeziy… (cont) Nations-Unis Le Monde intervient en Libye, avec une vitesse inhabituelle: … Local militias and Revolutionary Committees across the country were also kept well-armed. Rap, hip hop and traditional music, alongside other genres, played a big role in encouraging dissent against Gaddafi's government. On 19 March 2011, exactly eight years later to the day, it was the French president’s turn to rain down bombs over Libya, once again claiming it was to bring democracy. Mustafa Jalil[43](Commander-in-Chief) Omar El-Hariri[44] Jalal al-Digheily Khalifa Haftar Abdelhakim Belhaj Abdul Fatah Younis † Suleiman Mahmoud[45] Hamad bin Ali Al Attiyah, 17,000 defected soldiers and volunteers[48][failed verification] "[271] as-Senussi said that the protesters would be "victorious in the end" and calls for international support to end the violence. [73][74] A much greater issue has been the role of militias which fought in the civil war and their role in the new Libya. [219] Advertisements seeking mercenaries were seen in Nigeria[219] with at least one female Nigerian pro-Gaddafi sniper being caught in late August outside Tripoli. [97], Some of the worst economic conditions were in the eastern parts of the state, once a breadbasket of the ancient world, where Gaddafi extracted oil. [275] He also stated that he will support any form of government that Libya will choose after Gaddafi including a constitutional monarchy. Some of these "mercenaries" were compelled to fight against their wishes, according to a source inside one of the refugee camps. A September 2013 report by The Independent shows that Libya had plunged into its worst political and economic crisis since the defeat of Gaddafi. Everybody is terrified because of the armed militia. Al-quaeda started bombing. Saif al-Arab Gaddafi †[22] Nothing else. Times Video Libya’s Cease-Fire Agreement is ‘Fundamental’ to Ending Conflict, Says U.N. [278] In March, it was reported Idris bin Abdullah had held meetings at the State Department and Congress in Washington with US government officials. [168] Rebel group primarily initiated from Misrati, Zentan and Derna. [240][241][242] The conflict grew as thousands of people joined the protests. Article 8 of The Code on the Promotion of Freedom stated that "each citizen has the right to express his opinions and ideas openly in People's Congresses and in all mass media. Music has been controlled and dissenting cultural figures have been arrested or tortured in Arab Spring countries, including Libya. Defense.gov News Photo 110305-M-2275H-537 - Egyptian refugees fleeing Libya board a U.S. Air Force KC-130J Hercules aircraft in Djerba, Tunisia, on March 5, 2011.jpg 5,616 × 3,744; 1.24 MB [348][349] Some academics believe that this intervention transformed the legal nature of the conflict as a whole, with the result that even the rebels should have been considered as one of the parties to an overarching international conflict spanning the whole Libyan territory. 200,000 volunteers by war's end(NTC estimate)[49]. The regime of Muammar al-Qaddafi, however, violently resisted the uprising, leading to civil war and international military intervention. [164] On 29 March, the political and international affairs committee of the Council presented its eight-point plan for Libya in The Guardian newspaper, stating they would hold free and fair elections and draft a national constitution. [199], During the siege of Misrata in May 2011, Amnesty International reported "horrifying" tactics such as "indiscriminate attacks that have led to massive civilian casualties, including use of heavy artillery, rockets and cluster bombs in civilian areas and sniper fire against residents. [161] The Benghazi-based opposition government had called for a no-fly zone and airstrikes against the Jamahiriya. Directed by Valérie Donzelli. Turkey sent a hospital ship to Misrata and a Turkish cargo ship brought 141 tons of humanitarian aid. Amnesty International stated that because al-Hajji had previously been imprisoned for his non-violent political opinions, the real reason for the present arrest appeared to be his call for demonstrations. The Rebels regained a few cities. [331] It was reported that five people were killed and at least five injured in the events. See, e.g., Kolb, Robert and Hyde, Richard. The Chadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in a statement said that "Chadians are not sent or recruited in Chad to serve as mercenaries in Libya," and that allegations about Chadian mercenaries were "likely to cause serious physical and material harm to Chadians residing in Libya. However, the report noted the rebels lacked a unified command and that Gaddafi loyalists and snipers remained at large in many areas of Tripoli. [16] The Daily Telegraph studied the case of a 16-year-old captured Chadian child soldier in Bayda. The government also banned giving blood transfusions to people who had taken part in the demonstrations. [308], In July 2011, Saif al-Islam accused NATO of bombing Libyan civilians, including his family members and their children, under the false pretence that their homes were military bases. [314] The rebels were reported as estimating 400 people had been killed and a further 2,000 injured in the battle. [188], In a 17 March 2011 interview, shortly before the military intervention, Muammar Gaddafi's son and heir apparent Saif al-Islam Gaddafi said that "armed militia" fighters in Benghazi were killing children and terrorizing the population. [379], To continue responding to the needs of people staying at the Ras Ajdir crossing point in Tunisia, the WFP and Secours Islamique-France were upgrading a kitchen that would provide breakfast for families. He concluded, "What we saw in Tahrir Square, and in Tunisia, was a clear situation. Jalal al-Digheily [130] Protests took place in Benghazi, Ajdabiya, Derna, Zintan, and Bayda. As a train roars through a wall He also blamed alcohol. He regained Ra's Lanuf and Brega. In September, the Gaddafi stronghold of Bani Walid was besieged by rebels, who reported that Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam was hiding in the city. [277] On 21 February, he made an appearance on Piers Morgan Tonight to discuss the uprising. [319][320] Some civilian Gaddafi supporters remaining in the city reported that women and children had been killed in crossfire or fired upon by rebel forces. [193], In the eastern city of Bayda, anti-government forces hanged two policemen who were involved in trying to disperse demonstrations. [360] Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council, 2010-2011 16. Piers Morgan Explores the Man at the Center of Libya's Uprising", "With NATO's Operation Odyssey Dawn Launch, Strategic Dimensions Come into Focus", "Libyan Royal Family Seeking Swedish Asylum", "Benghazi, Cradle of Revolt, Condemns Gaddafi", "Protesters Defy Gaddafi as International Pressure Mounts (1st Lead)", "Middle Eastern Media See End of Gaddafi", "Libya: Gaddafi Forces Attacking Rebel-Held Benghazi", "Libya: urgent to apply the rules of war", "Gaddafi relatives offered Malta Armed Forces bribes – Clinton ally", "Canada turns commitment into clout in Libya", "Libya: U.S. Tomahawk Cruise Missiles Hit Targets in Libya", "Libya: US, UK and France attack Gaddafi forces", "French Fighter Jets Deployed over Libya", "France Uses Unexplosive Bombs in Libya: Spokesman", "Polled N.J. [201] The International Federation for Human Rights reported a case where 130 soldiers were executed. [62] The protests escalated into a rebellion that spread across the country,[63] with the forces opposing Gaddafi establishing an interim governing body, the National Transitional Council. [388], Many states also either issued travel advisories or attempted evacuations. [102][104], Gaddafi said that he planned to combat corruption in the state by proposing reforms where oil profits are handed out directly to the country's five million people[105] rather than to government bodies, stating that "as long as money is administered by a government body, there would be theft and corruption. Libya was officially run by a system of people's committees which served as local governments for the country's subdivisions, an indirectly elected General People's Congress as the legislature, and the General People's Committee, led by a Secretary-General, as the executive branch. [115][117], In December 2009, Gaddafi reportedly told government officials that Libya would soon experience a "new political period" and would have elections for important positions such as minister-level roles and the National Security Advisor position (a Prime Minister equivalent). We Are Free, "Qaddafi's Grip Falters as His Forces Take On Protesters", "Libyan rebels let Russian journalists go — RT News", "Rebel Leaders in Libya's Misrata Curb Press Freedoms as Casualties Mount", "BBC Crew Beaten and Given Mock Executions", "Killing of Al Jazeera Journalist Condemned", Freed journalists await word on missing driver, reflect on Libyan captivity, "Mohammad Nabbous, face of citizen journalism in Libya, is killed", "Ultranationalist Serbs Organize Pro-Qaddafi Campaign", "Reporting from Libya – Close your window", "No freedom for foreign press at Tripoli's Rixos hotel", "Muammar Gaddafi Using Civilians To Protect Key Sites", "Libyan Rebels Battle Qaddafi's Forces for Control of Cities", "Text of Leader's Speech to Misrata Tribes in Tripoli and its Suburbs 4th Addendum", "Libya's Prosecutor General Says Joins Opposition", "Libya's Ambassadors to India, Arab League Resign in Protest Against Government", "Libyan Ambassador to Belgium, Head of Mission to EU Resigns", "Libyan Ambassador Denounces Gadhafi At U.N", "Libyan embassy cuts ties with Gaddafi, as Australia considers evacuations", "Libyan Ambassadors in France Back Revolt", "Libyan Ambassador to Portugal Quits in Protest", "Ambassaden hissar Libyens frihetsflagga", "Libya's US Ambassador Resigns from 'Dictatorship, In a New Libya, Ex-Loyalists Race to Shed Ties to Qaddafi, "Two Libyan Fighter Pilots Defect, Fly to Malta", "Qaddafi's Hold on Libya Weakens in Protest Wave", "Libya's Crown Prince Says Protesters Will Defy 'Brutal Forces, "Libya's 'Exiled Prince' Urges World Action", "Libyan Crown Prince Urges No-Fly Zone, Air Strikes", "Libyan Crown Prince Speaks to EU Parliament", "Libia, principe Idris: "Gheddafi assecondi popolo o il Paese finirà in fiamme, "Who Is Moammer Gadhafi? A total of 1,650 cartons of fortified date bars (equivalent of 13.2 metric tons) had also been provided to supplement these meals. Gaddafi's ambassador denied the reports. Dozens of them were arrested. The Economist correspondent in Tripoli noted "The picture presented by the regime often falls apart, fast. [214], After clashes between Government and anti-government forces, allegations arose of the Libyan Gaddafi using foreign mercenaries. Hamad bin Ali Al Attiyah, Muammar Gaddafi † [333], Bani Walid was captured by local tribal fighters on 23 January, due to the NTC's perceived inability to cooperate with them. [152] On 19 February, witnesses in Libya reported helicopters firing into crowds of anti-government protesters[153] a claim that Amnesty International stated they found no evidence for, noting that protesters repeatedly made verifiably false claims about repression by the government. Weapons allegedly continued to be delivered to Islamist groups also in September 2011, after the removal of Libya's government. [177][178] Gaddafi later also stated that the revolt against his rule was the result of a colonialist plot by foreign states, particularly blaming France, the US and the UK, to control oil and enslave the Libyan people. [75] These unresolved issues led directly to a second civil war in Libya. [140] Foreign workers and disgruntled minorities protested in the main square of Zawiya, Libya against the local administration. This extended even to his own sons, as he repeatedly changed affections to avoid the rise of a clear successor and rival. The First Libyan Civil War was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and foreign supported groups seeking to oust his government. They have their own courts. Despite one of the highest unemployment rates in the region, there was a consistent labor shortage with over a million migrant workers present on the market. This is one reason why Gaddafi needs foreign fighters,"[227] Rumours of Serbian mercenary pilots participating on the side of Gaddafi appeared early in the conflict. [307], In June 2011, Muammar Gaddafi and his son Saif al-Islam announced that they were willing to hold elections and that Gaddafi would step aside if he lost. The boy, who had previously been a shepherd in Chad, told that a Libyan man had offered him a job and a free flight to Tripoli, but in the end he had been airlifted to shoot opposition members in Eastern Libya. With Eric Elmosnino, Mathilde Seigner, Fred Testot, Alain Chabat. [70], Efforts to mop up pro-Gaddafi forces in northwestern Libya and toward Sirte began even before the rebels fully consolidated control of Tripoli. Fleeing the violence of Tripoli by road, as many as 4,000 refugees were crossing the Libya–Tunisia border daily during the first days of the uprising. "[198], In May 2011, International Criminal Court (ICC) chief prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo estimated that 500–700 people were killed by security forces in February 2011, before the rebels took up arms. [257] Libyan Prosecutor General Abdul-Rahman al-Abbar resigned from the post and joined the opposition.[258]. It was also reported attempts at contact had been initiated by French and Saudi officials. [93] Libya's corruption perception index in 2010 was 2.2, ranking 146th out of 178 countries, worse than that of Egypt (ranked 98th) and Tunisia (ranked 59th). [173][174] Gaddafi's claims are supported by a 2008 secret cable from the US embassy in Tripoli to the US State Department, and an analysis by the Combating Terrorism Center at the US Military Academy at West Point of a set of documents called the Sinjar Records, purporting to show a statistical study of the al-Qaeda personnel records. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 was adopted on 26 February, freezing the assets of Gaddafi and ten members of his inner circle and restricting their travel. He also said that his father made recorded calls to General Abdul Fatah Younis, who later defected to the rebel forces, in order to request not to use force against protesters, to which he said Fatah Younis responded that protesters were attacking a military site and soldiers were acting in self-defense. In the 1980s, a large portion of it was spent on arms purchases, and on sponsoring militant groups and independence movements around the world. ", "Mali fears as Tuaregs return from Libya", "Gadhafi Using Foreign Children As Mercenaries In Libya", "African Mercenaries in Libya Nervously Await Their Fate", "Libya: Gaddafi and His Mali-Chad Tuareg Mercenaries", "В Ливии на стороне правительства воюет немало зимбабвийцев", На стороне Каддафи воюют белорусские партизаны, Источник: освобожденный из плена в Ливии белорусский военный прибыл в Минск, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8451467/Female-Colombian-snipers-fighting-to-defend-Col-Gaddafi-in-Libya.html, "Sudan: Govt Deploys Troops to Borders With Libya", "Algeria May have Violated UN Resolution By Providing Weapons to Libya, US State Dept", https://www.nknews.org/2015/01/north-korea-and-libya-friendship-through-artillery/, https://web.archive.org/web/20110321212338/http://www.sudantribune.com/NAfrican-Union-demands-end-to%2C38339, https://www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2011/06/17/russia-and-china-team-up-against-nato-libya-campaign/, https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-libya-idUKTRE71P1LO20110226, https://havanatimes.org/news/cuba-pulls-diplomats-out-of-libya/, https://www.pri.org/stories/2011-08-25/south-africa-sticks-gaddafi, https://www.opinion.com.bo/articulo/el-pais/choquehuanca-bolivia-reconocera-gobierno-transitorio-libia/20110910124900377464.html, https://www.the-star.co.ke/national/national/46949-pm-flays-au-over-libya-crisis/, https://www.uypress.net/Internacionales/Mujica-opino-sobre-la-muerte-de-Muamar-Gadafi-uc21199, https://archive.vn/20120907081245/http://www.newera.com.na/article.php?articleid=40268, https://www.irishexaminer.com/world/arid-30517648.html, https://en.mercopress.com/2011/10/24/ecuador-president-condemns-killing-of-gaddafi-and-family-members-as-homicide, https://web.archive.org/web/20120323030200/http://www.lapatilla.com/site/2011/09/09/alba-asegura-que-solo-reconoce-a-gadafi/, "UPDATE 1-Anger, chaos but no revolt after Libya violence", "The rise of the 'Madkhalists': Inside Libya's struggle for religious supremacy", "Libya's Opposition Leadership Comes into Focus", "Nato strike 'kills Gaddafi's youngest son, "Feature Report – Long summer of civil war in Libya", "Jordan begins Libya police training programme", "Gadhafi Asks Obama To Call Off NATO Military Campaign", "Libya: How the Opposing Sides Are Armed", "Prisoners in Libya languish without charge", "Libyan revolution casualties lower than expected, says new government", "Libyan estimate: At least 30,000 died in the war", "Libyan Rebels Accused of Arbitrary Arrests, Torture", "Libyan Rebels Pledge Free and Fair Election", "A Visual Look Back at the Libyan Revolution", "Opinion: On the second anniversary of the 17th February 2011 Revolution – reflections and considerations", "Amnesty questions claim that Gaddafi ordered rape as weapon of war", "Security Council Calls for War Crimes Inquiry in Libya", "Security Council Authorizes 'All Necessary Measures' To Protect Civilians in Libya", "Gadhafi Blasts 'Crusader' Aggression After Strikes", "Libya accuses rebels of breaching truce", "Libyan rebels reject African Union road map – Africa", "Street fighting rages in Tripoli as Gaddafi loyalists fight rearguard action", "Gaddafi killed as Libya's revolt claims hometown", "Former Gaddafi stronghold revolts against Tripoli", "Qaddafi Is No Mubarak as Regime Overthrow May Trigger a 'Descent to Chaos, "Libyan minister claims Gaddafi is powerless and the ceasefire is 'solid, "Gaddafi Is Eccentric But the Firm Master of His Regime, Wikileaks Cables Say", "What Did Qaddafi's Green Book Really Say? Bombing sites are recycled. They violently protested against the government. [349] Others doubt this on account of both legal and factual considerations. [171] Rebels denied this. These elections were planned to coincide with the Jamahiriya's usual periodic elections for the Popular Committees, Basic People's Committees, Basic People's Congresses, and General People's Congresses, in 2010. "[114], In 1988, Gaddafi criticized the "excesses" he blamed on the Revolutionary Councils, stating that "they deviated, harmed, tortured" and that "the true revolutionary does not practise repression. [159], The National Transitional Council (Arabic: المجلس الوطني الانتقالي‎) was established on 27 February to consolidate efforts for change in the rule of Libya. [244] In the city of Misrata, rebel leaders imposed restrictions on the foreign media. Libya will show that these belonged to Al Qaeda.

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