[51] Nicholas's attendance at the Council of Nicaea is attested early by Theodore the Lector's list of attendees, which records him as the 151st attendee. Also, comments containing web links or block quotations are unlikely to be approved. Current slide {CURRENT_SLIDE} of {TOTAL_SLIDES}- Best Selling in CDs. Didier Henry (baritone), Vincent Le Texier (baritone), Christian Papis (narrator) Nancy Symphony Orchestra, Ile de France Vittoria Regional Choir, Michel Piquemal [22][29][33], According to Michael the Archimandrite's account, after the second daughter was married, the father stayed awake for at least two "nights" and caught Saint Nicholas in the same act of charity toward the third daughter. [32] According to one version, Emperor Constantine sent three of his most trusted generals, named Ursos, Nepotianos, and Herpylion, to put down a rebellion in Phrygia,[32] but a storm forced them to take refuge in Myra. Cette copie illustrée contient la vie et les miracles de saint Nicolas (†vers 343), un évêque de Myre qui fut très populaire en Orient. [112] The emphasis on his foreignness may have been intended to enhance Bari's reputation by displaying that it had attracted the patronage of a saint from a far-off country. [60] The church was built in the fourth century, around the time of Nicholas's death,[60] and is typical of saints' shrines from that time period. [31][22][29][d] This meant that they would remain unmarried and probably, in absence of any other possible employment, be forced to become prostitutes. 1 mars 2020 - Découvrez le tableau "miracles de St-Nicolas - St-Nicholas" de Carol (Carolus) Gertsch sur Pinterest. 24 nov. 2020 - Découvrez le tableau "bricolage :saint Nicolas" de Laïla Benslimane sur Pinterest. [10][11] Any writings Nicholas himself may have produced have been lost[12] and he is not mentioned by any contemporary chroniclers. [35], The historicity of this incident is disputed. [61][71][72][73], Adam C. English describes the removal of the relics from Myra as "essentially a holy robbery"[74] and notes that the thieves were not only afraid of being caught or chased after by the locals, but also the power of Saint Nicholas himself. [22][29][34] The scene of Nicholas's secret gift-giving is one of the most popular scenes in Christian devotional art, appearing in icons and frescoes from across Europe. [86] In 1096, the duke of Apulia gave several bones of Saint Nicholas to the count of Flanders, which he then enshrined in the Abbey of Watten. We and our partners use cookies to personalize your experience, to show you ads based on your interests, and for measurement and analytics purposes. [Guy Ropartz; Pierre R Claudin] Miracle de saint Nicolas. [22] Because Apollonius's hometown of Tyana was not far from Myra, Lendering contends that many popular stories about Apollonius may have become attached to Saint Nicholas. [22] Philostratus never mentions the fate of the daughters and, in his story, Apollonius's generosity is purely motivated out of sympathy for the father;[22] in Michael the Archimandrite's account, however, Saint Nicholas is instead expressly stated to be motivated by a desire to save the daughters from being sold into prostitution. [68], After the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Byzantine Empire temporarily lost control over most of Asia Minor to the invading Seljuk Turks,[61] and so Greek Christians of Myra became subjects of the Turks. [86] The city of Venice had interest in obtaining the remaining fragments of his skeleton[87] and, in 1044, they dedicated the San Nicolò al Lido monastery basilica to him on the north end of the Lido di Venezia. [J Guy Ropartz; Michel Piquemal; Didier Henry; Vincent Le Texier; Christian Papis; Eric Lebrun; Christine Lajarrige; Irène Brissot; Radio-France. Miracle de Saint Nicolas : la légende des 3 officiers Une révolte ayant éclaté en Phrygie, l'empereur romain y envoya trois officiers de son armée pour remettre de l'ordre. [89] The Venetians took the remaining bones of Saint Nicholas, as well as those of several other bishops of Myra, from the church there, which was only guarded by four Orthodox monks, and brought them to Venice, where they deposited them in the San Nicolò al Lido. [65], On 28 December 2009, the Turkish government announced that it would be formally requesting the return of Saint Nicholas's skeletal remains to Turkey from the Italian government. [91][92][85] It is said that someone dies every time the bones of Saint Nicholas in Venice are disturbed. Other early stories tell of him calming a storm at sea, saving three innocent soldiers from wrongful execution, and chopping down a tree possessed by a demon. It is not to be confused with. [94] This church, whose name means "Saint Nicholas in Chains", was built on the site of a former municipal prison. [56] Eventually, the scene became so widely reproduced that, rather than showing the whole scene, artists began to merely depict Saint Nicholas with three naked children and a wooden barrel at his feet. [11][18][15] According to Jeremy Seal, the fact that Nicholas had a tomb that could be visited serves as the almost solitary definitive proof that he was a real historical figure. Eliot’s “The Cocktail Party”: The Language & Doctrine of Atonement, Please Remember Us on Your “Nice” List This Christmas, Coronavirus and Science Fiction: Dying With Drama, Netflix’s “The Crown”: Diana, the Poor Little Princess, Lessons From the American South for Healing Our Nation, Climbing the Mountain of Education With John Henry Newman, An End to the Bleak Mid-Winter of Reductionist Worldviews, Tolkien and Lewis Under the Christmas Tree, A Friend and Faithful Servant of C.S. [104][105], Nicholas had a reputation for secret gift-giving, such as putting coins in the shoes of those who left them out for him, a practice celebrated on his feast day, 6 December. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Ropartz: Le Miracle de Saint Nicolas, etc / Piquemal, et al by Eric Lebrun, Christian Papis (CD, Jul-2001, Naxos (USA / Record Label)) at the best online prices at eBay! Iconographically, Nicholas is depicted as an elderly man with a short, full, white, fluffy beard and balding head. Release Date: 10th Feb 2014. CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication. [93] The sailors who had transported the bones gave one tooth and two fragments chipped from Nicholas's sarcophagus to the Norman knight William Pantulf. [66][67] Turkish authorities have asserted that Saint Nicholas himself desired to be buried at his episcopal town, and that his remains were illegally removed from his homeland. [78] Although the Crusaders generally favored warrior saints, which Saint Nicholas was not, the presence of his relics in Bari made him materially accessible. In late medieval England, on Saint Nicholas Day parishes held Yuletide "boy bishop" celebrations. [85][101][69] The bone was one of the oldest the Oxford team had ever examined. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on Amazon.com. [61] The remains arrived on 9 May 1087. "Why more than a million Russians have lined up to see a piece of the rib of Saint Nicholas", "Ci sono ossa di san Nicola anche a Venezia? Sometimes he is depicted wearing the Eastern Orthodox mitre, sometimes he is bareheaded. Ropartz also published poetry. Set in the middle of an epic battle between Christians and Muslims, the play tells the story of a good Christian who escapes the battle and is found praying to a statue of Saint Nicolas by the Muslim forces. [14] The earliest mentions of Saint Nicholas indicate that, by the sixth century, his cult was already well-established. [99][100] In 2014, the Face Lab at Liverpool John Moores University produced an updated reconstruction of Saint Nicholas's face. [29] Nicholas went to the church to pray[29] and was therefore proclaimed the new bishop. Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is also known as Nicholas the Wonderworker. A tenor soloist appears as Saint Nicolas, with a mixed choir, boys singers, strings, piano duet, organ and percussion. [57] The fact that Saint Nicholas was shown with children led people to conclude he was the patron saint of children;[57] meanwhile, the fact that he was shown with a barrel led people to conclude that he was the patron saint of brewers. Today, Saint Nicholas is still celebrated as a great gift-giver in several Western European and Central European countries. [29][55] Nicholas, visiting the region to care for the hungry, saw through the butcher's lies[29][56] and resurrected the pickled children by making the Sign of the Cross. The remaining bone fragments from the sarcophagus were later removed by Venetian sailors and taken to Venice during the First Crusade. A children's Mass is still held on 6 December in the cathedral. Because of his patronage of mariners, occasionally Saint Nicholas will be shown standing in a boat or rescuing drowning sailors; Medieval Chants and Polyphony, image on the cover of the Book of Hours of Duke of Berry, 1410. [85] In the absence of DNA testing, however, it is not yet possible to know for certain whether the pelvis is from the same man. Saint Nicholas Center: Who is Saint Nicholas? Cantata for tenor solo, chorus (SATB), semi-chorus (SA), four boy singers and string orchestra, piano duet, percussion and organ", "Bone fragment thought to belong to saint who inspired Father Christmas discovered in Italy: Academics have tested findings and say they belong to correct epoch", "Adam English digging back into the real St. Nicholas", "Santa's tomb is found off Turkey: Academics claim to have found where St Nicholas was buried. Comments that are critical of an essay may be approved, but comments containing ad hominem criticism of the author will not be published. [74] Returning to Bari, they brought the remains with them and cared for them. [22][29] In his most famous exploit,[30] which is first attested in Michael the Archimandrite's Life of Saint Nicholas, Nicholas heard of a devout man who had once been wealthy but had lost all of his money due to the "plotting and envy of Satan. [29], After his parents died, Nicholas is said to have distributed their wealth to the poor. Lewis: Memories of Walter Hooper. [22] He therefore argues that it is possible Michael the Archimandrite may have been relying on a source written before conversion narratives became popular, which would be a positive indication of that source's reliability. Get this from a library! The earliest accounts of his life were written centuries after his death and contain many legendary elaborations. [40], One of the earliest attested stories of Saint Nicholas is one in which he saves three innocent men from execution. [22] Christian storytellers were known to adapt older pagan legends and attribute them to Christian saints. For the gift-bearing character in modern folklore and popular culture, see, "Nicholas of Myra" redirects here. Naxos: 8555656. [39] Martino took thousands of measurements, detailed scientific drawings, photographs, and x-rays. [59], It has long been traditionally assumed that Saint Nicholas was originally buried in his home town of Myra, where his relics are later known to have been kept,[40][60] but some recent archaeological evidence indicates that Saint Nicholas may have originally been entombed in a rock-cut church located at the highest point on the small Turkish island of Gemile, only twenty miles away from his birthplace of Patara. [20] Jona Lendering, a Dutch historian of classical antiquity, notes that Michael the Archimandrite's Life does not contain a "conversion narrative", which was unusual for saints' lives of the period when it was written. The liquid gradually seeps out of the tomb, but it is unclear whether it originates from the body within the tomb, or from the marble itself; since the town of Bari is a harbour, and the tomb is below sea level, there have been several natural explanations proposed for the manna fluid, including the transfer of seawater to the tomb by capillary action. [22], In another story, Nicholas is said to have visited the Holy Land. "[22][31] The man could not afford proper dowries for his three daughters. [94] A hand claimed to belong to Saint Nicholas was kept in the San Nicola in Carcere in Rome. While the real gifts would only be presented at Christmas, the little presents for the children were given right away, courtesy of Saint Nicholas. Soon after the transfer of Saint Nicholas's relics from Myra to Bari, a Russian version of his Life and an account of the transfer of his relics were written by a contemporary to this event. [23] Traditionally, Nicholas was born in the city of Patara (Lycia et Pamphylia), a port on the Mediterranean Sea,[9] in Asia Minor in the Roman Empire, to a wealthy family of Greek Christians. [83] More than a million people lined up in Moscow for a momentary glimpse of the gilded ark holding one of the saint's ribs. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème Saint françois xavier, Saint nicolas de … The episode with the three dowries is commemorated by showing him holding in his hand either three purses, three coins or three balls of gold. Protests from the Russian government against this were successful, and the bronze statue was returned (albeit without its original high pedestal) to a corner nearer the church. Le Miracle de Saint Nicolas (Legende en deux parties et 16 tableaux): Part One: Prologue, a song by Guy Ropartz, Didier Henry, Vincent Le Texier, Christian Papis, Ile de France Vittoria Regional Choir, Orchestre Symphonique et Lyrique de Nancy, Michel Piquemal on Spotify Your donation to the Institute in support of The Imaginative Conservative is tax deductible to the extent allowed by law. Shop and Buy Le Miracle De Saint Nicolas sheet music. Saint Nicholas of Myra[a] (traditionally 15 March 270 – 6 December 343),[3][4][b] also known as Nicholas of Bari, was an early Christian bishop of Greek descent from the maritime city of Myra in Asia Minor (Greek: Μύρα; modern-day Demre, Turkey) during the time of the Roman Empire. He is depicted as an Orthodox bishop, wearing the omophorion and holding a Gospel Book. Bradford, Eric Voegelin, Christopher Dawson, Paul Elmer More and other leaders of Imaginative Conservatism. Shortly after his return, he became Bishop of Myra. His reputation evolved among the faithful, as was common for early Christian saints, and his legendary habit of secret gift-giving gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus ("Saint Nick") through Sinterklaas. Le miracle de la Saint-Nicolas, a song by Ensemble Instrumental, Jean Leber, La maîtrise de l'école nationale de musique et de danse de Chartres, Philippe Frémont on Spotify. [60] The church where historians believe he was originally entombed is at the western end of the great processional way. [63] Small bones quickly began to disperse across western Europe. In 325, Nicholas is said to have attended the First Council of Nicaea,[15][22][49] where he is said to have been a staunch opponent of Arianism and devoted supporter of Trinitarianism,[50] and one of the bishops who signed the Nicene Creed. [58], According to another story, during a great famine that Myra experienced in 311–312, a ship was in the port at anchor, loaded with wheat for the Emperor in Constantinople. Free shipping for many products! Nicholas invited the sailors to unload a part of the wheat to help in the time of need. Lorsqu’en 1087, ses reliques furent transférées de Myre à Bari, dans le sud de l’Italie, saint Nicolas fut à son tour populaire en Occident. Be the first to write a review. [36] Nicholas's name appears on a total of three early lists, one of which, Theodore the Lector's, is generally considered to be the most accurate. In 2017, an archaeological survey at St. Nicholas Church, Demre was reported to have found a temple below the modern church, with excavation work to be done that will allow researchers to determine whether it still holds Nicholas's body. In modern Greece, he is still easily among the most recognizable saints and 6 December finds many cities celebrating their patron saint. Check out Ropartz: Miracle De Saint Nicolas (Le) / Psaume 136 by Christian Papis on Amazon Music. Ils embarquèrent dans un bateau à voiles. [19][18], In his treatise De statu animarum post mortem (written c. 583), the theologian Eustratius of Constantinople cites Saint Nicholas of Myra's miracle of the three counts as evidence that souls may work independent from the body. Le miracle de saint Nicolas ; Psaume 136 ; Dimanche ; Nocturne ; Les vêpres sonnent. The featured image is “Saint Nicholas Resuscitating Three Youths” (1433-35) by Bicci di Lorenzo. [75], Because of Nicholas's skeleton's long confinement in Myra, after it was brought to Bari, the demand for pieces of it rose. As a result of this reputation, devotion to Nicholas extended to all parts of Europe. [48] In these versions of the story, Nicholas is also imprisoned,[48][54] but Christ and the Virgin Mary appear to him in his cell. The Saint Nicholas Center – comprehensive Saint Nicholas related information and resources. The myrrh is collected from a sarcophagus which is located in the basilica vault and could be obtained in the shop nearby. [94] Many of these bones were initially kept in Constantinople,[94] but, after the Sack of Constantinople in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade, these fragments were scattered across western Europe. [94] Another finger was held in Ventimiglia in Liguria. The sailors at first disliked the request, because the wheat had to be weighed accurately and delivered to the Emperor. [45] Eustathius, under the threat of being reported directly to the Emperor, repented of his corrupt ways. Saint Nicholas was known for his generosity and kindness, which gave rise to legends of miracles he performed for the poor and unhappy. [101][69], Among the Greeks and Italians he is a favorite of sailors, fishermen, ships and sailing. [85] According to Professor Higham, most of the relics the team has examined turn out to be too recent to have actually belonged to the saint to whom they are attributed,[85] but he states, "This bone fragment, in contrast, suggests that we could possibly be looking at remains from St Nicholas himself. Even with the allegedly continuing miracle of the manna, the archdiocese of Bari has allowed for one scientific survey of the bones. [48] Stephen D. Greydanus concludes that, because of the story's late attestation, it "has no historical value. [22] According to Jona Lendering, there are two main possibilities: A later legend, first attested in the fourteenth century, over 1,000 years after Nicholas's death, holds that, during the Council of Nicaea, Nicholas lost his temper and slapped "a certain Arian" across the face. ; Chœur régional Vittoria d'Ile de France. Le Miracle de Saint Nicolas (Legende en deux parties et 16 tableaux): Part Two: Choral, a song by Guy Ropartz, Didier Henry, Vincent Le Texier, Christian Papis, Ile de France Vittoria Regional Choir, Orchestre Symphonique et Lyrique de Nancy, Michel Piquemal on Spotify [94] The town itself is now known as "Saint Nicolas de Port" in honor of Nicholas. As part of this celebration, youths performed the functions of priests and bishops, and exercised rule over their elders. [113], In a strange twist, the three gold balls referring to the dowry affair are sometimes metaphorically interpreted as being oranges or other fruits. [48] On account of this, Constantine revoked Nicholas's miter and pallium. ", "Relics of St. Nicholas – Where are They? [80] Nicholas's veneration by Crusaders helped promote his cult throughout western Europe.[81]. All comments are moderated and must be civil, concise, and constructive to the conversation. In 1966, a vault in the crypt underneath the Basilica di San Nicola was dedicated as an Orthodox chapel with an iconostasis in commemoration of the recent lifting of the anathemas the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches had issued against each other during the Great Schism in 1054. Buy Ropartz: Le Miracle de Saint Nicolas by Didier Henry, Vincent le Texier, Joseph Guy Ropartz, Michel Piquemal, Nancy Symphony Orchestra, Eric Lebrun, South West France Regional Choir, Maitrise de Radio France from Amazon's Classical Music Store. This file is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication and appears here courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. 50+ videos Play all Mix - Les amis de tous les enfants du monde - Le miracle de Saint Nicolas YouTube Les amis de tous les enfants du monde - Vole la feuille - … Will you help us remain a refreshing oasis in the increasingly contentious arena of modern discourse? [84], The sailors from Bari only took the main bones of Nicholas's skeleton, leaving all the minor fragments in the grave. In 1087, while the Greek Christian inhabitants of the region were subjugated by the newly arrived Muslim Seljuk Turks, and soon after their church was declared to be in schism by the Catholic church, a group of merchants from the Italian city of Bari removed the major bones of Nicholas's skeleton from his sarcophagus in the church without authorization and brought them to their hometown, where they are now enshrined in the Basilica di San Nicola. [90] This tradition was lent credence in two scientific investigations of the relics in Bari and Venice, which confirmed that the relics in the two cities are anatomically compatible and may belong to the same person. Vials of myrrh from his relics have been taken all over the world for centuries, and can still be obtained from his church in Bari. [60] In antiquity, the island was known as "Saint Nicholas Island"[60] and today it is known in Turkish as Gemiler Adasi, meaning "Island of Boats", in reference to Saint Nicholas's traditional role as the patron saint of seafarers. We hope that The Imaginative Conservative answers T.S. Best Selling in CDs. The Imaginative Conservative is an on-line journal for those who seek the True, the Good and the Beautiful. 490. [58] As a result of this, Nicholas became the patron saint of prisoners and those falsely accused of crimes. [75] The last time the bones were examined was in July 1992. [16] The Byzantine historian Procopius also mentions that the Emperor Justinian I (ruled 527–565) renovated churches in Constantinople dedicated to Saint Nicholas and Saint Priscus,[17][16] which may have originally been built as early as c. Keep in mind that essays represent the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of The Imaginative Conservative or its editor or publisher. Life of St. Nicholas, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Saint_Nicholas&oldid=995471065, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with incomplete citations from December 2016, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 05:30. The History of Santa Claus and Father Christmas, http://www.santiebeati.it/dettaglio/30300, Lehigh Codex 1 Historia of St. Nicholas with the lections at OPenn, Lehigh Codex 2 Anon. As in the Low Countries in medieval times oranges most frequently came from Spain, this led to the belief that the Saint lives in Spain and comes to visit every winter bringing them oranges, other 'wintry' fruits and tales of magical creatures. In centuries of Greek folklore, Nicholas was seen as "The Lord of the Sea", often described by modern Greek scholars as a kind of Christianized version of Poseidon. [56] According to English, eventually, people who had forgotten or never learned the story began misinterpreting representations of it. [29] Recognizing his nephew's calling, Nicholas's uncle ordained him as a priest. Le Miracle de Saint Nicolas. [40] In autumn of 1096, Norman and Frankish soldiers mustered in Bari in preparation for the First Crusade. He is mentioned in the Liturgy of Preparation during the Divine Liturgy (Eastern Orthodox Eucharist) and during the All-Night Vigil. ROPARTZ: Miracle de Saint Nicolas (Le) / Psaume 136 NA 5656. [36] Saint Nicholas's name only appears on the longer lists, not the shorter ones. [15] This story sounds plausible, but is not attested in the earliest sources and is therefore unlikely to be historical. In Oriental Orthodoxy, the Coptic Church observes the Departure of St. Nicholas on 10 Kiahk, or 10 Taḫśaś in Ethiopia, which corresponds to the Julian Calendar's 6 December and Gregorian Calendar's 19 December. In 2005, mayor Süleyman Topçu had the statue replaced by a red-suited plastic Santa Claus statue, because he wanted an image more recognisable to foreign visitors. [46] The generals' enemies also bribed Ablabius and he had the three generals imprisoned. Check out Le miracle de Saint Nicolas by Les Amis De Tous Les Enfants Du Monde on Amazon Music. [113], In 1948, Benjamin Britten completed a cantata, Saint Nicolas on a text by Eric Crozier which covers the saint's legendary life in a dramatic sequence of events. For those who still observe the Julian calendar the celebration currently takes place thirteen days later than it happens in the Gregorian calendar and Revised Julian calendar.[106]. [32][41] According to Michael the Archimandrite, three innocent men were condemned to death by the governor Eustathius. [58] Mothers would come to the church to pray to Saint Nicholas for their jailed sons to be released[58] and repentant criminals would place votive offerings in the church. [89] Bishop Henri insisted for the fleet to turn back and set anchor in Myra. [40], The clergy at Bari strategically gave away samples of Nicholas's bones to promote the cult and enhance its prestige. [17] Eustratius credits a lost Life of Saint Nicholas as his source. ; Orchestre symphonique et lyrique de Nancy.] [42] Saint Nicholas appeared to Constantine and Ablabius in dreams, informing Constantine of the truth and frightening Ablabius into releasing the generals, for fear of Hell. Eliot’s call to “redeem the time, redeem the dream.” The Imaginative Conservative offers to our families, our communities, and the Republic, a conservatism of hope, grace, charity, gratitude and prayer. Joseph Guy Marie Ropartz (1864–1955) was a French composer and conductor. [35] Many renderings contain a cypress tree or a cross-shaped cupola. "[85] Doctor Kazan believes the pelvis fragment may come from the same individual as the skeleton divided between the churches in Bari and Venice,[85][101][69] since the bone they tested comes from the left pubis,[85] and the only pelvis bone in the collection at Bari is the left ilium. [39], In 2004, at the University of Manchester, researchers Caroline Wilkinson and Fraco Introna reconstructed the saint's face based on Martino's examination. [29] The bishop of Myra, who had succeeded Nicholas's uncle, had recently died[29] and the priests in the city had decided that the first priest to enter the church that morning would be made bishop. [79] Nicholas's associations with aiding travelers and seafarers also made him a popular choice for veneration. Others focus on the silver lining which may be found in the next generation of traditional conservatives who have been inspired by Dr. Kirk and his like. [39] He also suffered from severe chronic arthritis in his spine and pelvis. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Wheeler & Rosenthal, "St Nicholas: A Closer Look at Christmas", (Chapter 1), Nelson Reference & Electronic, 2005, de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo: "The science of Santa Claus : discussions on the Manna of Nicholas of Myra in the modern age". [58] An index finger claimed to belong to Saint Nicholas was kept in a chapel along the Ostian Way in Rome. [9] In some accounts, Nicholas's uncle was the bishop of the city of Myra, also in Lycia. Its innocent simplicity contrasts with the rich polyphony of the Psalm: the prologue in popular form (Aeolian mode on F) draws from its fugal exposition a discreetly archaic air and the predominant atmosphere is that of a luminous pastoral (the first scene is repeated in the minor at the sunset of the fifth). [102], In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Saint Nicholas's memory is celebrated on almost every Thursday of the year (together with the Apostles) with special hymns to him which are found in the liturgical book known as the Octoechos. [86] According to legend, in 1101, Saint Nicholas appeared in a vision to a French clerk visiting the shrine at Bari and told him to take one of his bones with him to his hometown of Port, near Nancy. [53], One story tells how during a terrible famine, a malicious butcher lured three little children into his house, where he killed them, placing their remains in a barrel to cure, planning to sell them off as ham. [22][29] The father immediately arranged a marriage for his first daughter, and after her wedding, Nicholas threw a second bag of gold through the same window late at night. [103] Devotional akathists and canons have been composed in his honour, and are frequently chanted by the faithful as they ask for his intercession. [22][29][31] Hearing of the girls' plight, Nicholas decided to help them, but, being too modest to help the family in public (or to save them the humiliation of accepting charity), he went to the house under the cover of night and threw a purse filled with gold coins through the window opening into the house. According to another source, on 6 December every sailor or ex-sailor of the Low Countries (which at that time was virtually all of the male population) would descend to the harbour towns to participate in a church celebration for their patron saint. [20], Despite its extremely late date, Michael the Archimandrite's Life of Saint Nicholas is believed to heavily rely on older written sources and oral traditions.